Saturday, May 30, 2020

Prenatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoking Research Paper - 1100 Words

Prenatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoking (Research Paper Sample) Content: Criminal JusticeName:Institution:Criminal JusticeThe major concern in the health sector has been the Prenatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoking, Drugs, Alcohol and HIV. Use of alcohol, drugs, and other substance abuse is on the rise and the mothers are not spared either. Moreover, the prevalence of the epidemic, AIDS is on the rise making prenatal exposure the scourge irresistible. Such exposures have serious effects to the unborn. The exposure to these substance and conditions have immense negative impacts that ranges from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), infant mortality rate, miscarriages, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) (Meade, 2007). Smoking Smoking has serious effects to mothers during pregnancy. Some of the major adverse effect of smoking is that it causes miscarriages, low birth weight babies, and premature labor. Research shows that cigarettes restrict the supply of oxygen to a critical part known as neonate leading to suppressed growt h. In fact, the situation gets worse when the mother smokes Shisha since one pipe of the substance is equivalent to up to 7-10 Cigarettes (Meade, 2007). Consequently, constant smoking of shisha can results to worse effects such as stillbirth, and suppressed development of the child. Moreover, smoking during pregnancy has the capacity to expose the child hyperactivity or inattention. Such a condition is not good for the development of the child since it can lead to poor learning outcome in school. Besides, it can also result to a reduced acquisition of necessary skills and knowledge in a given profession. Cocaine Cocaine, which is popularly known as crack, flake, or coke, is a stimulant that affects the central nervous system. The drug leads to several effects such as hyperactivity, talkativeness decreased confidence, unrealistic sense of euphoria, and depression. Moreover, coke also has serious impact to the unborn. In fact, it leads to suppressed growth, impedes the development of the nervous system, and premature birth (Cnattingius, 2004). In addition, it leads to increased cases of babies with deformities. For instance, most children exposed to cocaine while in the womb end up with small heads that might compromise their learning in future. Prenatal exposure to cocaine can also give rise to children with increased irritability, and excessive crying. The development of the children exposed to cocaine may be difficult; they could end up with inattention and language delays as well as difficulty in catching sleep. Heroin Heroin is a popular drug that goes by several street names such as brown, skag, horse, and smack. The drug is derived from opium and is highly addictive among the users. It is widely known for causing serious slowdown of the functioning of the body. Furthermore, it leads to a feeling of low psychological and physical pain, makes one feel sleep, and relaxed. It is important to take note that when this drug is taken in large quantities it lea ds to coma, breathing issues, hepatitis A and B. The users of this drug are highly susceptible to HIV since they share needles that are used to inject the drug into the body through the veins (Meade, 2007). Consequently, a fetus exposed to heroin is likely to experience premature birth, exposure to HIV, hypertonia, pulmonary aspiration, seizures associated with abstinence, and voracious appetite. The sharing of needles among the users of heroin exposes them to serious diseases such as syphilis, hepatitis, and HIV, which could be easily passed to the unborn if the condition, is not contained in good time. Such children therefore require proper treatment at birth for them to survive to celebrate their first birthday. CannabisCannabis is a popular drug that is smoked across the globe. It is legal in some countries and illegal in others. It goes by the street name skunk, pot, ganja, or hag. The drug has serious ramifications on the users that include paranoia, distorted coordination, slowed reactions, and feeling of relaxation (Cnattingius, 2004). Other adverse effects that are associated with the use of the drug include metal conditions such as schizophrenia, lack of concentration and lack of motivation. Research suggest that pregnant mothers who use marijuana are likely to experience still birth, low eight children, as well as development effects on the babies. Children exposed to cannabis sativa are likely to develop mental conditions such as schizophrenia that might affect their learning and development in future. However, when used to moderate levels it does not have serious impact on the unborn or the mother. On the contrary, it can be of medicinal value because it suppresses certain forms of cancer that are prevalent among the women. HIV HIV is prevalent in the society and it is one the leading causes of high infant mortality rates. Prenatal exposure to HIV aids makes the unborn highly susceptible to the condition through exchange of fluids and at birth. When a child contract HIV, they develop weak immune system that implies that they are likely to contract any diseases (Cnattingius, 2004). As a result, most of these children do not live to celebrate their first birthday. HIV has no cure yet, hence the best w...

Saturday, May 16, 2020

The Influence Of Booker T. Washington - 1497 Words

The influence of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B DuBois have had on the advancement of the African American community in the United States cannot be measured only by looking at the effects they had in their community at that time but by looking at the long term impacts they had on ideas, and policies. The means that the Washington and DuBois both express are both influenced by where they are originally from and how they grew up. With one growing up as a slave and the other growing up not a slave changes the perception that they might have on how to approach their race problems. I will be mainly focusing on the African American community and the way that Washington and DuBois believe the problem of civil rights should be solved. The tenants†¦show more content†¦Washington says later on in his speech â€Å"No race that has anything to contribute to the markets of-the world is long in any degree ostracized.† (Cite this) This is saying that to further their rights, people must first make themselves valuable to the society that they would like to be a part of. W. E. Burghardt Du Bois was an African American activist, historian and sociologist who was born in Massachusetts (DuBois Bibliography Pg.2) He was educated at Fisk University and in Germany and subsequently received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1895. (DuBois Bibliography Pg.1) He worked at Atlanta University and the NAACP where he was the editor of its magazine. DuBois has a very different idea on how to advance the African American community. DuBois believes that â€Å"The Negro race, like all races, is going to be saved by its exceptional men.† (DuBois Pg.1) DuBois believes that to advance the Black agenda,Show MoreRelated Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois Influences on Equality594 Words   |  3 PagesBooker T. Washington once said, â€Å"Nothing ever comes to one, that is worth having, except as a result of hard work.† In the age of reconstruction and western expansion, civil rights bursted out like a bullet from a gun. Two men led the way into the civil rig hts movement, but in very different customs. Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois both were huge influences to civil rights, one founding what we know today as the NAACP and the other spoke of a philosophy known as the Atlanta CompromiseRead More The Influence of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois on the Writings from the Harlem Renaissance2140 Words   |  9 PagesThe Influence of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois on the Writings from the Harlem Renaissance Two of the most influential people in shaping the social and political agenda of African Americans were Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois, both early twentieth century writers. While many of their goals were the same, the two men approached the problems facing African Americans in very different ways. This page is designed to show how these two distinct thinkers and writers shaped one movementRead MoreAnalysis Of The Atlanta Compromise Speech1112 Words   |  5 Pagesaffected many of the black society, including Booker T. Washington. He was a major contributor to the end of segregation, and in 1895, he delivered the Atlanta Compromise Speech. He believed that with the hard work of the blacks, that they would earn and gain the respect of the esteemed whites. The main idea of The Atlanta Compromise Speech was that blacks should obtain social responsibility and need to work from the bottom to top to achieve this. Booker T. Washington’s speech was given to persuadeRead MoreT hree Dimensional Materials, Processes and Tools759 Words   |  4 Pagesof sculpture. This sculpture is made out of glass with measurements of 8x5 feet. Drip, Drop Plop utilized the molding process to shape a glass into sperm-shaped black drops and some were even accented with cartoony human eyes that suggested the influence of Wilsons childhood experiences. Meanwhile, the â€Å"glass drip forms suggested black tears and liquid black flesh† while the addition of the eyes emphasized that these were not mere black objects but they serve as â€Å"a metaphor for human degradationRead MoreThe Negro And Signs Of Civilization1188 Words   |  5 Pagesultimately lead to the Civil Rights movement and the end of racial segregation. The Civil Rights movement dealt with problems of inequality and disenfranchisement of African Americans that began in the post-civil war era. W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington are considered by historians, two of the prominent leaders of the black co mmunity in the late 19th and early 20th century who sought inclusion and equality through social and economic progress. While their end goals were the same, the meansRead MoreBooker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois and John Hope Essay1286 Words   |  6 Pageswhite and black populations. Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois and John Hope all attempted to conquer these tough issues based on their own experience and cultural influences by sharing their opinions. A well-respected African American leader named Booker T. Washington gave a speech that would be later named the Atlanta Compromise at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta on September 18, 1895 (Booker T. Washington Biography). Booker T. Washington was born in to slavery andRead MoreBooker T. Washington Vs. Theu.s. B. Dubois : The Discussion Of Conformity910 Words   |  4 PagesBooker T. Washington vs W.E.B. Dubois: the discussion of conformity At the early turn of the 20th Century United States, there was a large debate about how the average American viewed African Americans or Negroes. As a result, white consensus geared toward putting Africans in a type of caste system, where they would consider below whites, women, and immigrants. By this point, most African Americans were just conforming to this way of life and did not seek to change this. While this occurred, manyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article Of Mr. Booker T. Washington1086 Words   |  5 Pagesactivists are W.E.B Du Bois and Booker T. Washington, both whom were the voices for African Americans. Although, both great leaders, they did not always agree completely, often butting heads over the others ideals. Booker T. Washington was a young African American man living in the south, during the civil rights era. Washington, being the last generation of slaves, became the voice of past slaves and the African American people. W.E.B Du Bois, although conflicting with Washington often, spoke of him inRead More Booker T. Washington Essay1419 Words   |  6 Pagesthe views of Booker T. Washington nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Born a slave, Booker T. Washington rose to become a commonly recognized leader of the Negro race in America. Washington continually strove to be successful and to show other black men and women how they too could raise themselves. Washingtonamp;#8217;s method of uplifting was education of the head, the hand, and the heart. From his founding of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881 to his death in 1915 Booker T. Washington exerted a tremendousRead More Booker T. Washingtons Up from Slavery Essay1467 Words   |  6 Pages The book, Up From Slavery, written by Booker Taliaferro Washington, profoundly touched me when I read it. Washington overcame many obstacles throughout his life. He became perhaps the most prominent black leader of his time. Booker T. Washington belived that African Americans could gain equality by improving their economic situation through education rather than by demanding equal rights. Washington’s life story was told during the mid to late 1800’s into the early 1900’s, in the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Drug Addiction Tearing Families Apart - 2986 Words

Jaclyn O’Grady Ms.Collins College English 12 (8) June 3, 2015 Drug Addiction: Tearing Families Apart The substance abuse of a parent has a lasting and apparent effect on all young children. There are a number of substances that can become a problem in people’s lives, including but not limited to; marijuana, alcohol, stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogens and inhalants. Drugs critically affect the individual taking them, but also affect the members of the household, especially children. Not only does the person’s addiction emotionally, mentally, and physically affect the individual lives of other members of the family, but it tears apart relationships between the families. Arguments, disagreements, violence, and stress can derive from the abuse of drugs because of the tension it puts on one’s other members of the family. It is possible for alcohol and drugs to be utilized medically or accepted in social situations. The use of drugs and alcohol is not necessarily considered addiction or abuse. Experimentation is trying alcohol or drugs out of curiosity or peer pressure. If you use drugs in this manner, experimentation may not become problematic for an individual. Social and recreational use of a drug happens mostly with alcohol and marijuana. Use is widely accepted, except for marijuana, which is illegal. Many people can manage drinking solely at social occasions which does not constitute substance abuse or addiction. Drinking or using drugs as a stress reliefShow MoreRelatedEffects Of Teen Drug Abuse. Many Teenagers Across The Country898 Words   |  4 Pages Effects Of Teen Drug Abuse Many teenagers across the country experiment with drugs. While most of them only do it once or twice, other teenagers or young adults create lifelong addictions. There are many reasons why people try drugs, leaving a deadly and devastating effect on anyone unlucky enough to be the person using or be close to the person using. Drugs can cause teens to begin abusing, create health problems, get people in serious trouble, or even lead to death. As teenagers grow older,Read MoreDrug Anonymous Meeting At The University Of Colorado Essay1681 Words   |  7 Pages In taking the course â€Å"Drugs in U.S. Society† at The University of Colorado – Boulder I was given the opportunity to further my understanding of the course by attending a Narcotics Anonymous meeting in Boulder, CO. On Friday, December 2nd at around noon I attended a Narcotics Anonymous meeting at St. Andrew’s Church in Boulder, CO. I was able to connect my knowledge about addiction, narcotics, and normalization of recreational drug use to the contents of the meeting. Ultimately, my observations inRead MoreNeonatal Abstinence Syndrome ( Nas ) Is The Dependency That An Infant Essay1427 Words   |  6 Pagespredetermined drug addiction. There is nothing this child can do for itself. They were not given a choice in the matter and they can do nothing about it, many not having a strong support system from their parents while they do so. Although t here are methods to treat Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome, the effects are horrible and long lasting. Many children this year will be born with a drug or alcohol dependency and many others will die due to this. With this in mind, it is far easier on the family as wellRead More Television Addiction Essay1004 Words   |  5 Pagesor are they trapped by the clutches of perpetual, mind- numbing entertainment. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Addiction is a strong word. It is now even considered a disease. It conjures up images of a ruthless person, willing to kill for his next fix, or the angry drunk, tearing apart his family with his problem. Millions of Americans struggle with these and different types of addiction each day, and are helpless to the type of escape from reality they chose. Certainly, something as innocent atRead MoreTelevision Series Named Breaking Bad Essay1280 Words   |  6 Pagesown against aggressive and psychologically unstable drug dealers, and he only grows stronger as the series advances. Walter White’s long dormant pride and ego start to awaken as the series deepens. The more he taps into his alter ego, the more he shows his true colors. Therefore, throughout the show, it is evident that he is imploring his natural instincts. It comes so naturally for him to transform from a genuine family man to a kingpin of the drug trade. There is no hesitation on his part si nce heRead MoreEssay on Defining Moments939 Words   |  4 Pagesof the house nearly by dawn and only to return by nightfall, she was ignored and turned away by her mother. All throughout her childhood, and most of her young adult life until she ran away, my mother was pushed onto other family members. When my grandmother ran out of family members, she would leave my mom with foster parents for months of a time. She wasn’t a bad kid; she didn’t misbehave. She just wanted someone to want her around, someone to love her. Regrettably, the reason my grandmother wentRead MoreThe Effects of Cocaine on the Brain2150 Words   |  9 PagesCocaine Addiction Tonya Hall Research Writing/COM 220 May 16, 2010 Felecia Squires Read MoreAmerica Is The Land Of The Free2667 Words   |  11 Pageswar. We have been fighting drug abuse for almost a century. In 1972 president Nixon declared a war on drugs. Unfortunately, we are not winning this war. Drug users are still filling up our jails and prisons, now more than ever. The drug war causes violent crime and criminal activity due to prohibition, not the drugs themselves. Children in all of this are left neglected or without parents. The only beneficiaries of this war are organized crime members and drug dealers. The United States hasRead MoreDrug Use Among Young People Essay1789 Words   |  8 PagesDrug consumption is a wide spread problem throughout young people in the UK today. Drugs can affect young people’s life in many different ways however, young people are addicted with it so much that it is hard for them to withdraw from it. They do not like to withdraw the usage of drugs because it calms them or makes them energetic. There are th ree types of drugs with each of its own attraction for young people. More young men than young woman reported using drugs. About 48 per cent of young peopleRead MorePainkillers: a Growing Epidemic2089 Words   |  9 Pagesweeks ago. My grandmother would never abuse drugs, so why was the bottle empty already? I asked her about the medication and she told me that she was taking up to eight pills a day. She had misinterpreted the instructions and was taking twice the maximum allowed per day and had become dependent on the drugs unknowingly. The abuse of painkillers is becoming an all too familiar problem throughout the country, and the results are tearing people apart. The abuse does not discriminate. People from

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Where the Mind Is Without Fear free essay sample

The poem below is a masterpiece it beautifully captures foundational principles that any nation should adopt or a concise description of what the constitution of any country should look like. We will write a custom essay sample on Where the Mind Is Without Fear or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It was written by Nobel prize winner Rabindranath Tagore, before Indias independence. A must-read for any senator, politician, public servant, or any dutiful citizen. Where the mind is without fear And the head is held high Where knowledge is free Where the world has not been broken up Into fragments by narrow domestic walls Where words come out from the depth of truth Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way Into the dreary desert sand of dead habit Where the mind is led forward by thee Into ever-widening thought and action Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake Summary: The poem describes Tagores vision of how his country could offer a heavenly experience to its citizens, or what a free country should look like. In his iew, it would be a country where, * people can express their views freely without fear of repercussions, * people share and spread knowledge freely, * people are open minded and willing to listen to each others perspectives, * people are true to each other, value their integrity, and honest in their dealings, people work hard and strive for perfection in quality, * people are driven by reasoning and scientific temper, instead of fallacies, hypocricies, or ideologies. people are open to change and dont succumb to nertia or continue age-old orthodox customs and practices that do not meaningfully apply anymore, * people are progressive, think of bigger goals and accomplish them, constantly raising the bar. When such a vision is accomplished, such a country would be free, and a heaven to live in. Easily said, than done? Not quite, there are countries that have woken up to much of Tagores vision. Ironically, India hasnt woken up yet, but not in deep slumber either lets hope the da wn is soon. Where the Mind Is Without Fear By zpktmm

Friday, April 17, 2020

POWERPOINT PR1 Essays - Countries, Southeast Asia,

Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Ramon National High School-Senior High Practical Research 1 Batch 2019 High School Teachers Perception Who Use Filipino Language as a Medium of Instruction Regarding on Filipino Subjects Removal in Commission on Higher Education (CHED) Dinahum Danaleth Batalon Jomel Dela cruz Nathaniel Eduarte Arneliza Jacinto Gesel Lorenzo King Edmar Reyes Maricar PIC HEREstyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibilitystyle.visibility Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Ramon National High School-Senior High I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Filipino subjects removal in college is a very practical action of CHED since we are all aware that Filipino subject has already taught during primary and secondary level of education. Practical Research 1 Batch 2019style.visibilitystyle.visibilityppt_xppt_y Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Ramon National High School-Senior High I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING However, the CHED must know or asses the consequences first of this action of theirs before implementing such actions. Practical Research 1 Batch 2019style.visibilitystyle.visibilityppt_xppt_ystyle.visibilityppt_xppt_ystyle.visibilityppt_xppt_y RESEARCH QUESTIONS Practical Research 1 Batch 2019 Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Ramon National High School-Senior Highstyle.visibilityppt_wppt_hppt_xppt_ystyle.visibilityppt_wppt_hppt_xppt_y RESEARCH QUESTIONS Practical Research 1 Batch 2019 Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Ramon National High School-Senior Highstyle.visibilityppt_wppt_hppt_xppt_ystyle.visibilityppt_wppt_hppt_xppt_y RESEARCH QUESTIONS Practical Research 1 Batch 2019 Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Ramon National High School-Senior Highstyle.visibilityppt_wppt_hppt_xppt_ystyle.visibilityppt_wppt_hppt_xppt_y III. SCOPE AND DELIMITATION Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Ramon National High School-Senior High Practical Research 1 Batch 2019 Out of more than 20 high school teachers of Ramon National High School, only 10 selected High School teachers who use Filipino language as a medium of instruction were interviewed in conducting this study.style.visibilityppt_xppt_y III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Ramon National High School-Senior High Practical Research 1 Batch 2019 Case study type of research design was chosen as the best research design associated in this study since it is a research strategy and an empirical inquiry that investigates within its real-life context that based onstyle.visibilitystyle.visibilityppt_xppt_y Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Ramon National High School-Senior High Practical Research 1 Batch 2019 in-depth investigation of a single individual, group or event to explore the causes of underlying principle. Through this research design, it also aims to describe a person, a thing, or any creatures on earth for the purpose exploring the reason behind the nature of its existence. style.visibility Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Ramon National High School-Senior High Practical Research 1 Batch 2019 Hence, the researchers were able to define and describe easily the reasons why CHED planned to remove Filipino subject and how they managed to spill this bean while thinking the implications and consequences and/or effects which is the primary aim of this research.style.visibility Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Ramon National High School-Senior High Practical Research 1 Batch 2019 III. SUMMARY, AND CONLUSION RECOMENDATIONS This study was done by interviewing ten (10) respondents from Ramon National High School teachers. Interview questions as regards to the study were used to gather information. Data analyzing on the transcript was used to find out the perceptions of High school teachersstyle.visibilityppt_wppt_hstyle.rotationstyle.visibilityppt_wppt_h Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Ramon National High School-Senior High Practical Research 1 Batch 2019 who use Filipino language as medium of instruction regarding on Filipino subjects removal in CHED accommodating only the scope and delimitations of the study. After the rigid analysis, the findings were formulated.style.visibility Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Region 02-Schools Division of Isabela Practical Research 1 Batch 2019 III. FINDINGS There were four (4) answers given by some respondents regarding on Filipino subjects removal in CHED. These were (a) Filipino subjects removal in CHED is still a puzzle, (b) Filipino subjects removal is because of Filipino and English language are the same in content,style.visibilityppt_xppt_yppt_yppt_yppt_ystyle.visibility Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Region 02-Schools Division of Isabela Practical Research 1 Batch 2019 III. FINDINGS (c) Filipino is already part of the curriculum in Primary and Secondary School and; (d) Removal of Filipino Subject is due to modern technologies.style.visibilityppt_xppt_yppt_yppt_yppt_ystyle.visibility Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Region 02-Schools Division of Isabela Practical Research 1 Batch 2019 Respondents reactions regarding on Filipino subjects removal in terms of job employment are (a) Filipino teachers are being threatened and; (b) The respondents are disappointed.style.visibility Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Region 02-Schools Division of Isabela Practical Research 1 Batch 2019 The impacts of Filipino subjects removal in CHED to the students regarding on their patriotism or nationalism were (a) It will lead to the erosion of our own national identity, (b) It will affect the competitiveness of the students,style.visibilityppt_xppt_y Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Region 02-Schools Division of Isabela Practical Research 1

Friday, March 13, 2020

Battle of Arsuf in the Crusades

Battle of Arsuf in the Crusades The Battle of Arsuf was fought September 7, 1191, during the Third Crusade (1189-1192). Armies Commanders Crusaders King Richard I the Lionheart of Englandapprox. 20,000 men Ayyubids Saladinapprox. 20,000 men Battle of Arsuf Background Having successfully completed the siege of Acre in July 1191, Crusader forces began moving south. Led by King Richard I the Lionheart of England, they sought to capture the port of Jaffa before turning inland to reclaim Jerusalem. With the Crusader defeat at Hattin in mind, Richard took great care in planning the march to ensure that adequate supplies and water would be available to his men. To this end, the army kept to the coast where the Crusader fleet could support its operations. In addition, the army only marched in the morning to avoid the midday heat and campsites were selected based on the availability of water. Departing Acre, Richard kept his forces in a tight formation with the infantry on the landward side protecting his heavy cavalry and baggage train to seaward. Responding to the Crusaders movements, Saladin began shadowing Richards forces. As Crusader armies had proven notorious undisciplined in the past, he began a series of harassing raids on Richards flanks with the goal of breaking up their formation. This done, his cavalry could sweep in for the kill. The March Continues Advancing in their defensive formation, Richards army successfully deflected these Ayyubid attacks as they slowly moved south. On August 30, near Caesarea, his rearguard became heavily engaged and required assistance before escaping the situation. Assessing Richards route, Saladin elected to make a stand near the town of Arsuf, just north of Jaffa. Arraying his men facing west, he anchored his right on the Forest of Arsuf and his left on a series of hills to the south. To his front was a narrow two-mile wide plain extending to the coast. Saladins Plan From this position, Saladin intended to launch a series of harassing attacks followed by feigned retreats with the goal of compelling the Crusaders to break formation. Once this was done, the bulk of Ayyubid forces would attack and drive Richards men into the sea. Rising on September 7, the Crusaders needed to cover a little over 6 miles to reach Arsuf. Aware of Saladins presence, Richard ordered his men to prepare for battle and resume their defensive marching formation. Moving out, the Knights Templar were in the van, with additional knights in the center, and the Knights Hospitaller bringing up the rear. The Battle of Arsuf Moving onto the plain north of Arsuf, the Crusaders were subjected to hit-and-run attacks beginning around 9:00 AM. These largely consisted of horse archers dashing forward, firing, and immediately retreating. Under strict orders to hold formation, despite taking losses, the Crusaders pressed on. Seeing that these initial efforts were not having the desired effect, Saladin began focusing his efforts on the Crusader left (rear). Around 11:00 AM, Ayyubid forces began increasing the pressure on the Hospitallers led by Fra Garnier de Nablus. The fighting saw mounted Ayyubid troops dash forward and attack with javelins and arrows. Protected by spearmen, the Crusader crossbowmen returned fire and began exacting a steady toll on the enemy. This pattern held as the day progressed and Richard resisted requests from his commanders to allow the knights to counterattack preferring to husband his strength for the right moment while allowing Saladins men to tire. These requests continued, particularly from the Hospitallers who were becoming concerned about the number of horses they were losing. By mid-afternoon, the lead elements of Richards army were entering Arsuf. At the rear of the column, the Hospitaller crossbow and spearmen were fighting as they marched backwards. This led to the formation weakening allowing the Ayyubids to attack in earnest. Again requesting permission to lead his knights out, Nablus was again denied by Richard. Assessing the situation, Nablus ignored Richards command and charged forward with the Hospitaller knights as well as additional mounted units. This movement coincided with a fateful decision made by the Ayyubid horse archers. Not believing that the Crusaders would break formation, they had stopped and dismounted in order to better aim their arrows. As they did so, Nablus men burst from the Crusader lines, overran their position, and began driving back the Ayyubid right. Though angered by this move, Richard was compelled to support it or risk losing the Hospitallers. With his infantry entering Arsuf and establishing a defensive position for the army, he ordered the Templars, supported by Breton and Angevin knights, to attack the Ayyubid left. This succeeded in pushing back enemys left and these forces were able to defeat a counterattack by Saladins personal guard. With both Ayyubid flanks reeling, Richard personally led forward his remaining Norman and English knights against Saladins center. This charge shattered the Ayyubid line and caused Saladins army to flee the field. Pushing forward, the Crusaders captured and looted the Ayyubid camp. With darkness approaching, Richard called off any pursuit of the defeated enemy. Aftermath of Arsuf Exact casualties for the Battle of Arsuf are not known, but is estimated that Crusader forces lost around 700 to 1,000 men while Saladins army may have suffered as many as 7,000. An important victory for the Crusaders, Arsuf boosted their morale and removed Saladins air of invincibility. Though defeated, Saladin quickly recovered and, after concluding that he could not penetrate the Crusaders defensive formation, resumed his harassing tactics. Pressing on, Richard captured Jaffa, but the continued existence of Saladins army prevented an immediate march on Jerusalem. Campaigning and negotiations between Richard and Saladin continued over the next year until the two men concluded a treaty in September 1192 which allowed Jerusalem to remain in Ayyubid hands but permitted Christian pilgrims to visit the city. Resources and Further Reading Military History Online: Battle of ArsufHistory of War: Battle of Arsuf

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Pavane Should consider one of the most important dance in China Essay

Pavane Should consider one of the most important dance in China - Essay Example Though fast and moderately fast songs originally accompanied it, the dance can also be used for slow songs (Brown 1). The songs are based on the performance skills of the dancer. Through the attire adopted in the dance, it appears unique and very interesting. In demonstrating the importance of the pavane dance, a broad perspective on the dance will be considered as well as Yang Liping’s dance will be analyzed. It is therefore important that pavane dance should be given much importance in the dance department in China. Pavane is a dance that provides an intergenerational connection. Based on its history, the dance has a very important historical and cultural importance. Used by the French and Italy, it was adopted by the entire Europe and later spread across the world. China through its award-winning artists such as Yang Liping have presented this form of dance in their various presentations. In the historical context, the dance involved backward and forward movements in steps. The dancers would also sway side by side, as they raised their feet in a systematic manner. In addition, the dancers were in pairs as opposed to the current scenario where there can be a single dancer (Brown 5). This dance provides a very good basis of understanding the European culture since it basically relates closely to their ceremonies such as weddings. Yang Liping presents the dance in a spectacular way that makes attractive and worth considering in the Chinese Dance department. The dance is presented in a slow-motion manner with systematic body steps being made by Liping (You Tube 1). In addition, she uses only particular body parts in the dance as an expression of its composition. The dance goes very well with a slow song. Liping is able to capture the attention of the viewers since the steps and body movements made cannot be easily predicted. The dance is quite entertaining based on the use of diverse movements in the dance. On the other hand, her